Divide your butter, palm shortening or lard into 1 tablespoon increments, place them on a plate lined with parchment paper, and pop them in the freezer freezer to chill for 15-20 minutes.
When the fat you're using is done chilling and you're ready to start, preheat your oven to 350°F.
Place the eggs, lemon juice, maple syrup (or water for savory crusts), and vanilla extract (if using) in a small bowl and whisk together. Set aside.
In a medium bowl, combine all the dry ingredients (arrowroot, white rice flour, brown rice flour, and salt).
Remove the fat from the freezer and cut it into small chunks that are a little bigger than a pea. Add them to the bowl with the flour. Using a pastry cutter or large fork, cut in the butter/fat until it's in pieces that are a little smaller than a pea. (It's okay if there are a few pieces that are larger, too.)
Once the fat is worked in, add the liquid mixture and lightly mix until evenly distributed. If it's too dry, add cold water in 1 teaspoon increments until it holds together. If very cold butter (or another fat) is used, the dough should be cold enough to roll right away. However, if you're working in a hot environment or the dough feels warm, place a moist towel over the bowl and chill it for 10-15 minutes before going to the next step.
Sprinkle some arrowroot powder on parchment paper and place the dough on top. Form the dough into a ball and cut it in half. Place half of the dough in a bowl that is covered with a damp towel and place it in the fridge.
Dust your rolling pin and parchment paper with more arrowroot powder and place the remaining piece of dough on the surface. The flat side that you just cut should be facing down. Roll the dough until it's about 1/8 inch thick. That's about the height of two quarters stacked on top of each other. Tip: I usually rotate the parchment paper a little after each roll in a circular motion to achieve a round shape and place the pie pan over the top throughout to see when it's large enough. It should overlap the pan edge a little when it's ready. A pie crust bag makes rolling an even, nearly perfect round crust much easier. After reading the tip below, transfer the pie dough to your pan. I usually do this by placing the pan on top of the crust, sliding my hand underneath the parchment paper, flipping everything over, and then peeling off the parchment paper. Tip: When making pie crusts, I find it's easier to work with too much dough rather than too little. However, if there is a lot of dough hanging over the edge when you flip the dough it can weigh the crust down and cause it to pull apart. For that reason, I trim the dough a little before I flip.
Cut away any dough that is hanging over the edge of the pie plate and crimp the dough with your hands.
Using a fork, place some holes in the bottom of the crust. Place the pie crust in the the oven for 12 minutes and get ready to work on the next crust. (Make sure you remove the crust when the timer goes off, even if your second crust is not quite ready to go in.)
Remove the second piece of dough from the fridge and place it on the floured work surface. If I have a lot of trimmings left over from the first crust I sometimes dust off any excess flour and work them into the second batch of dough before rolling. Repeat rolling process.
Using a fork, place some holes in the bottom of the crust. Place the pie crust in the the oven for 10-12 minutes, then remove and allow to cool for 5-10 minutes before adding your filling.
Add filling bake according to recipe instructions. See the Tips & Tricks section for details on making fruit pies or pies that require the pie crust to be fully cooked before adding the filling.